Kabanda Mwansa is a doctoral research fellow at the Research Centre for Child and Youth Competence Development, Faculty of health and Social Sciences, Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway. He has a background in teaching Sport and Physical Education (PE), working in this field spanning over 18 years in both the Global South and the Global North, particularly within Sport for Development and Peace (SDP or S4D) programmes. He has focused on the use of sport to assist young people in disadvantaged situations, working with the underprivileged youths, refugee youths and the youth convicts in reformatory facilities. Co-founder of the EduSport Foundation and a vital backroom player in pioneering the renowned Kicking Aids Out and the Go-Sisters Concepts. He is among the few academics, practitioners and critics from the Global South advocating to narrow the widening disparities between the Global North and the Global South at the core of the development agenda.
Kabanda Mwansa is currently working on a PhD project “Beyond the goal line: Understanding the Role of Sport and Recreation in the Settlement and Integration of Refugee Youths in the wider Norwegian society”. The project pursues to establish an account of the evidence related to the outcomes of the participation of Refugee Youths in organized sport and recreation in relation to social inclusion in Norway. Particular attention is paid to the potential contributions that these activities can make towards integration and development of social connectedness of Refugee Youths into the wider Norwegian society and beyond.
Professional Sport as a potential economic emancipation tool: A case for Zambia
Like many countries in the sub-Saharan Africa, Zambia has not done much in recognising professional sport as one of the mechanisms for stimulating its economy. Despite gaining the status of an emerging economy, moving from a primary product-dependent economy to a middle-income industrialised one, alternative investments such as professional sport remains in the doldrums of development. Against this background, the middle class has expanded. However, the need to invest in professional sport for families in this category remain ambivalent as they instead mostly put their investment in schooling only. For example, within middle class families, children’s after school time is spent mostly on extra school lessons rather than on sport because they believe the quality of life could only be improved by schooling and not sport.
This is compounded by the policies of the previous government (Movement for Multi-party Democracy [MMD] rule) that undermined the importance and sustainability of sport and recreation by severely plummeting state subsidies for professional sport. Institutions like the Zambia Consolidated Copper Mines (ZCCM) on the Copperbelt invested quite huge in sport before the MMD government. Conversely, this investment went down the drain in the new regime that did not prioritise sport as an economic emancipation implement at country and individual levels.
This paper therefore focuses on changing the perception of a common Zambian, with emphasis on the middle class towards investing in professional sport, as a means for economic emancipation. The paper explores how the Zambian middle class is fixated on thinking that the only way to quality life is through schooling. The paper argues that if the middle class invested heavily in sport as opposed to the current situation where 95% of all Zambian professional athletes come from the economically below average families, then this could have a positive impact on the country’s economy
Implementing Sport for development and Peace in the Global North: Could the Global North learn from the Global South?
Although the global expansion of Sport for Development and Peace (SDP) interventions has occurred recently, the Global South, particularly the sub- Saharan Africa has been the largest target for its implementation. However, the argument remains, that SDP programmes and their implementation patterns have all been conceptualised in the Global North. This is viewed as problematic because the ideas are viewed to be detached from the realities and challenges being addressed. It is claimed that this has actually led to the proliferation of Global North worldviews that have limited transformative and liberative capacities in the Global South. However, there is evidence that a handful of local discourses in the Global South have inevitably been intertwined with SDP programmes, suffice at implementation level, narrowing through specific contextual approaches determined by the target community. This counters the Global North SDP standpoints that mostly universalise issues faced by particular communities, resulting in excessively simplified one-size-fits-all approaches.
Thus, this paper questions whether the Global North could learn from the Global South how the SDP programmes have been implemented based on the context of each target group. E.g. the Global North particularly Europe is presently integrating refugees into local populations. Sport has been touted as one means to achieve this using the SDP concept. I.e. the Norwegian Paralympic Committee and Confederation of Sport (NIF), probably under its SDP agenda has organised resources for sports clubs to use in integrating refugees. However, in reality, there is a great deal of diversity within and among refugee communities in Norway. Therefore, there could be no standard refugee community to be taken as a stereotype representing all other refugee communities, using the one size fits all stance propagated by the Global North`s conceptualisation of SDP programming. So, the question remains, can the Global North implement SDP the Global South way?